# Advanced Lab

I’ve written up some tips and provided some resources for Advanced Lab - I hope you find them useful, and please don’t hesitate to contact me with comments/corrections/additions.

- Formal reports
- Presentations
- Interactive Error Analysis Tutorial in Python
- Hints for deriving the gas flushing equation for \(C_p/C_v\)
- Speed of Sound
- Vacuum procedure
- Counting Statistics
**Range of \(\alpha\) particles:** The formula for converting pressure into effective distance is:
\[d_{\mathrm{effective}} = \left(\frac{288d}{76 \mathrm{cm Hg}(T+273)}\right)\]
**Big G: **There is a typo in question 24 - the correction should be 7.4% instead of 6.9%.
**Skills labs: **In general, what I look for when I grade skills lab notebook entries is a detailed procedure, along with diagrams of the equipment, and also descriptions of any precautions to take or obstacles you might have faced while performing the skills lab.
**Op Amps: **Detailed procedure, circuit diagrams. Also analyze the following circuits after the manner of the unity gain inverting amplifier: the summing amplifier, the difference amplifier, the inverting amplifier (of which the unity gain inverting amplifier is but a special case), and the level detector/comparator. For the integrator and differentiator circuits, the circuits provided in the lab writeup (the one that you actually build) are ‘practical’ differentiators and integrators. These are more difficult to analyze - instead, just analyze an ‘ideal’ differentiator and an ‘ideal’ integrator. You can find these described in many sources online.
- Roger Haar’s website with online versions of the lab writeups

## Additional resources provided by Xiaolin Xu: